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Apricot, or Common Apricot (from the Latin Prúnus armeniáca), is a fairly widespread fruit tree belonging to the genus Plum and the family Rosaceae, or Rosaceae. Fruits are an excellent raw material for the preparation of several types of very tasty and healthy preparations for the winter.
Features of the winter period
The most fatal for apricot trees, regardless of age, is the negative impact of winter thaws, which can provoke too early biochemical processes. A further sharp decrease in the temperature regime can cause irreversible damage, including the complete or partial death of flower buds. Especially destructive are such negative effects for young or recently planted fruit trees, whose non-desalinated shoots can freeze in the conditions of too frosty winters.
In the presence of a too long and abnormally warm autumn period on fruit stands, a long growth of shoots can often be observed, which causes freezing of not fully ripened shoots, flower buds, or wood. To prevent such undesirable processes, it is recommended in August to irrigate the fruit stands with a solution of wood ash. Such an event contributes to the cessation of growth processes and accelerates their maturation.
Usually, For watering an adult apricot tree, about six buckets with ash solution are used for this purpose. Starting in the second half of summer, it is very important not to introduce a significant amount of fertilizer, which contains nitrogen. When growing fruit crops in regions with severe or not enough snowy winters, it is recommended to give preference to planting the most frost-resistant zoned apricot varieties. In such areas, winterization of plants is used.
How to prepare apricots for winter
Timely and proper preparation of apricot plantations for winter cold helps minimize damage to fruit crops:
- in order to prevent diseases and pests, mandatory spraying of the stem and skeletal branches of apricot trees with a solution based on iron sulfate is carried out;
- the crown of young plants needs to be tied with a rope so that during heavy snowfalls there is no breakage of fragile branches;
- the skeletal branches and bases must be whitewashed with slaked lime with the addition of mullein or with special ready-made compounds;
- Prior to the onset of a cold snap, trunks circles should be mulled with peat, humus, compost or sand with the addition of sawdust.
Experienced gardeners recommend installing special shields around fruit plantations that will allow for snow retention in winter.
The most winter-hardy varieties
In recent years, domestic and experienced foreign breeders have bred and obtained quite frost-resistant and quite winter-hardy varieties, the cultivation of which is possible in regions with adverse weather and climatic conditions. The most promising varieties in this regard are known to most experienced gardeners.
|"Favorite"||Russia||Tall, with panicled crown||Bright yellow, fragrant, weighing 28-30 g||50-60 kg|
|"Delight"||South Ural Research Institute||Undersized, with a dense crown||Rounded, bright yellow, weighing 22-23 g||13-15 kg|
|"Russian"||North Caucasian Zonal Research Institute||3.54 m high with mid-crown||Slightly flattened, rounded, weighing 60-65 g||Up to 75-80 kg|
|Seraphim||Far Eastern breeding||Medium layer with spreading crown||Yellow or orange, weighing 33-35|
More than 30 kg
|Minusinsk Amber||Minusinsk experimental station||Tall with a pyramidal crown||Oval, yellowish-orange with a blush, weighing 3-4 g||About 8-10 kg and more|
|"Polessky large-fruited"||Institute of Horticulture UAAS||Tall, with a spreading crown||Round-oval, slightly flattened, yellowish-orange, weighing up to 80 g||High, depends on agricultural technology|
|Hargrand||Harrow Experimental Station||Tall, with a wide crown||Elongated oval, orange, weighing 80-120 g||High, depends on agricultural technology|
A very high rating of winter hardiness was given to the popular Alesha variety, which is widely distributed in the Moscow Region. This variety is not afraid of either winter frosts or late return frosts at the flowering stage.
Flowering during frost
Even sufficiently frost-resistant varieties, adapted to easily withstand significant frosts in the winter, at the flowering stage are sensitive to late spring frosts. During the period of budding or flowering, many gardeners use such affordable measures as smoke or sprinkling to protect them from frost while lowering the temperature regime.
If there is a risk of return frosts, it is recommended to delay the flowering period by means of special preparations. Auxins, which can delay the flowering phase by about ten days, give a good result. It is also possible immediately before flowering to spray fruit trees with saline, which should be prepared at the rate of 0.6-0.7 kg per 10 liters of water. Such an event will delay flowering for two weeks.
Early flowering apricot varieties can bloom very quickly during spring warming and have time to form sufficiently large ovaries that are more resistant to spring return frost than buds or flowers that have already opened.
How to prune apricot
Winter blank options
Ripe apricot fruits are consumed not only fresh, but also very popular in dried form. The most widely used are dried fruits, represented by apricot, kaisa, dried apricots, ashtak and pastille. Do not forget about such tasty and healthy apricot preparations such as marmalade, jam, jams, juices and all kinds of stewed fruit.