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Currently, several baseless methods of growing vegetables, berry crops and herbs at home and in greenhouses are used. Hydroponics for strawberries and other cultivated plants has become popular in our country relatively recently, but now has proven itself positively.
The lack of soil makes it possible to easily maintain cleanliness in the room, and for this reason it is very convenient to grow greens in hydroponics at home, on the windowsill. Basic equipment and nutrient solution can be done quite simply with your own hands.
Hydroponics is most often used for the cultivation of green onions, as well as almost any variety of lettuce, parsley, dill, spinach, sorrel, fennel, basil and cilantro or other spicy-aromatic herbs. It is best to grow hydroponics early ripe and early ripe varieties of green crops.
Most often, greens are cultivated by the method of flowing hydroponics. The advantages of this method are:
- high level of profitability in view of the low consumption of the solution and low energy costs;
- the most efficient fertilizer consumption;
- rapid growth and development of green culture;
- environmental cleanliness of the products.
To make such a system yourself, you will need to use:
- plastic gutters with optimal cross-section and holes for landing cups;
- standard plastic cups equipped with slots;
- a container filled with a nutrient solution;
- water pump and timer.
How to grow green onions in hydroponics
One side of the plastic gutter should be sealed with a plug. It is recommended to place the plastic gutter on the shelves with an angle of inclination from the horizontal of the order of one percent.
Nutrient solution for greens
High-quality nutrient solutions used in the hydroponic system, through specially made calibrated holes, enter the root system of the green culture. Properly prepared nutrient solution is a guarantee of obtaining high-quality vegetable and green products. The initial data of the water that is used to prepare the solution are presented:
- general indicators of the concentration of soluble salts;
- qualitative and quantitative content of essential nutrients;
- stiffness indicators.
Experts and experienced gardeners recommend using for preparing a nutrient solution:
- complex fertilizer "Kemira-hydro";
- granular calcium nitrate;
- monopotassium phosphate;
- liquid magnesium nitrate;
- potassium nitrate;
- magnesium sulfate;
- 58% nitric acid;
- 77% phosphoric acid.
Water for the preparation of the solution should have a temperature of 18-20 ° C. The content of nutrients in the solution may vary depending on the growing season of the green culture. The standard pH level of the finished solution is in the range of 5.8-6.5.
A special nutritional composition should be prepared for growing lettuce. In winter, the ratio of nutrients is as follows:
- nitrogen - 180;
- phosphorus - 50-70;
- potassium - 3604
- magnesium - 50-60;
- calcium - 80-100.
In the summer, the nutrient solution for growing lettuce should have the following composition:
- nitrogen - 140;
- phosphorus - 50-70;
- potassium - 220;
- magnesium - 40-55;
- calcium - 80.
Any changes can adversely affect the growth and development of green culture, in addition, do not allow to obtain high-quality products at the exit.
Features of growing technology at home
The technology involves the location of the root system of the green culture in a specially prepared hydroponic installation. In order to ensure plants the active growth and development of the root system, special artificial substrates should be used, as which you can use vermiculite, the smallest fraction of expanded clay, large washed sand or mineral wool.
Plant nutrition is provided by a special nutrient mixture based on water-soluble mineral and organic components. A fundamental point in hydroponics technology is the use of water circulation through small pump sizes, as well as two standard metal-plastic tubes and two container containers.
From the first container-container, a constant flow of liquid is carried out using a pump into the second container-container, which should be placed above the first. The end of the pipe should be bent U-shaped. Drain is carried out according to the siphon principle. The top container should be filled with a mixture of ordinary mineral wool and vermiculite, into which green crops grown at home are planted.
Seedling material is advisable to grow in small plastic pots or special seedling cassettes filled with loose and breathable nutrient substrate, the moisture content of which should be about 38-42%. In each pot, it is necessary to sow several seeds of green culture and carry out relatively plentiful watering with water at room temperature. The optimum temperature regime for germination is about 22-24 ° C with indicators of air humidity at the level of 94%. The length of daylight should be approximately 14-15 hours.
After the appearance of two true leaves, microclimatic conditions should be changed. Temperature indicators need to be lowered to 15-17 ° C. At this stage, the temperature indicators of the nutrient solution should be 18.0-18.5 ° C. It is very important to maintain the previous air humidity in the greenery using hydroponics. It is allowed to use standard growth stimulators twice in accordance with the instructions supplied by the manufacturer.
Hydroponics: growing seeds and seedlings
It should be remembered that the method of modern hydroponics is best suited for the cultivation of almost any variety of berry, vegetable, and green crops. The method is absolutely not suitable for growing root crops. Most often, hydroponics is used for growing cucumbers, tomatoes and various green crops, garden strawberries and indoor ornamental plants.