Description of varieties of chives, features of cultivation and care

Description of varieties of chives, features of cultivation and care

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Chives belongs to the onion family, they are grown for food and for decorative purposes. Cultivation is not difficult, the plant adapts to any conditions, but it is important to know and take into account some of the features. The culture is good for the human body, it contains many vitamins, minerals and natural phytoncides. Thin, dark green feathers and small chives are added to many foods, salads, and snack recipes.

Description and features of chives

Shnitt-onion in translation from German means cut-off onion, belongs to the group of herbaceous plants. Another name for the culture is skoroda, but there are many other synonyms. In the description of the culture, the features of the underground and above-ground parts are indicated.

The culture grows in the form of a small bush, the tubular leaves of bright green color reach 25 cm in length. At the base, the leaves expand slightly. In four years, the bush can grow up to 60 cm in length and consist of numerous stems with inflorescences (up to 100 pieces).

The underground part of the plant consists of filamentous roots, on which oblong bulbs of up to 20 pieces are formed. The color of the bulbs can be brown-white or purple-red. Blooming arrows form in the second year.

It blooms for several weeks with beautiful purple, lilac or whitish flowers, spherical in shape. Blooms in late May and lasts until August. The seeds are formed in a capsule, as they ripen, they acquire a black color, angular-oval in shape.

Popular varieties

All chives are most commonly grown for eating green leaves, as large bulbs do not form. Leaves grow back quickly after cutting, so you can harvest greens up to three times per season.

Skoroda onions do not require special care, all varieties are cold-resistant and highly resistant to diseases and pests. Seedlings can withstand short-term frosts up to -4 degrees.

The chives are divided into two large groups. The first group includes varieties that are grown as a vegetable crop. Popular varieties include: Honey plant, Khibinsky, Siberian, Prague, Crocus. The second group includes varieties bred for decorating flower beds and borders: Moscow, Elvi, Border.

Beneficial features

High taste properties determine the widespread use of chives in cooking. The composition contains more than 3% sugars, a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins. Fresh, as a spice, is added to salads, fish, meat dishes. The green leaves are tender, without bitterness, therefore they add a special piquancy to baked goods, omelets, sauces and other dishes.

Ornamental shrubs can decorate the site, the culture looks especially beautiful during flowering. In this case, the crop is grown as a perennial. The pleasant aroma of flowers attracts the attention of pollinating insects.

Due to its vitamin composition, chives are classified as medicinal plants. Useful components include:

  • vitamins (A, C, B, E, K);
  • minerals;
  • phytoncides;
  • amino acids (lysine, histidine, methionine);
  • trace elements (selenium, zinc, manganese).

Thanks to a whole list of useful components, chives increases appetite, improves the functioning of the digestive system, increases immunity, has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the kidneys, gallbladder, cardiovascular system, is an anthelmintic.

Soil preparation and planting chives

Shnitt-onion does not impose special requirements on the composition of the soil, but it develops best on fertile, loose, moist soil rich in lime.

The place intended for planting is cleared of weeds. In the fall, the site is dug to a depth of 28 cm and fertilizers are applied. If the soil is dense and clayey, add humus or compost. It is also useful to add mineral components such as superphosphate and urea.

In the spring, in the first half of April, the site is dug up again, leveled and slightly compacted, only after that they begin to divide into furrows with a distance of 30 cm.The seeds are deepened by 1 cm.

The first shoots should appear within a week. At this time, it is useful to loosen the soil between the rows. This will improve the oxygen supply to the roots. As soon as the first real leaf unfolds, thinning is carried out, leaving a distance between shoots of 11 cm. The next care consists in timely weeding, loosening and watering.

Seat selection

When choosing a site for planting chives, it should be borne in mind that the culture does not tolerate direct sunlight. In the sun, the leaves become coarse, lose their juiciness and become unsuitable for use in cooking. The soil must receive sufficient moisture.

All chives in the onion family thrive on well-drained, loose soil. A loamy, sandy loam composition is well suited. Growing from seed is not recommended on sandy soils due to poor moisture retention.

If you plan to grow chives as a perennial crop, then it is best to choose a shady, humid place. In this case, the bush will form juicy, green leaves for a long time. As an annual plant, onions are grown in separate beds.

Predecessors and neighbors of skoroda onions

The best predecessors for chives are considered to be herbs, cucumbers, radishes, potatoes. Diseases of cucumber and other permitted predecessors do not pose a danger to onions. You can plant carrots, tomatoes in the neighborhood. It grows poorly next to legumes, cabbage and beets.

The most popular variety of chives is Bohemia. You cannot plant a plant in the same place for more than 4 years. It is characterized by a high yield and a semi-sharp taste of green feathers. Can be used as a decoration for a summer cottage.

Chives care

During the cultivation of chives, a number of standard conditions must be met:

  • in the first year after planting the seeds of the crop, it is necessary to regularly loosen the soil;
  • it is important not to allow the growth of weeds, as they drown out the growth of young bushes;
  • watering is regular and abundant;
  • it is recommended to mulch the soil with fine mulch (peat, rice husks, sawdust);
  • dry leaves are harvested in autumn.

To get a juicy green mass, you need to feed with organic and mineral components several times per season.

Top dressing

The plot for planting onions begins to be prepared in the fall. It is dug up and mineral and organic fertilizers are applied. It is necessary to mix 5 kg of manure, 25 g of superphosphate, 17 g of potassium salt. Ammonium nitrate is introduced in the spring. The supply of nutrients is enough for the entire first year of plant development.

In the second year of growing and caring for the crop, it is necessary to start fertilizing after the first cut of the greenery. Cut the greens when the feathers reach a height of 30 cm. You can use wood ash, slurry of mullein or bird droppings. From mineral fertilizers, you can choose nitrophoska, azofoska. The following dressings are carried out after each cut of greenery.

The main pest of chives is the onion lurker. To reduce the risk of attack by insect pests, seed treatment and timely feeding will help. Additional nutritional components increase the plant's immunity.

Watering chives

Cultivated chives need regular and abundant watering. The soil should be constantly moist, but you should not allow moisture to stagnate near the roots.

If the soil is allowed to dry, onion leaves begin to coarse, lose their juiciness and useful properties. In this case, you need to cut off all the hardened greens and wait for new feathers, avoiding a dry crust on the surface of the site.

Reproduction of chives

Reproduction of chives occurs by seeds, seedlings, bulbs or dividing a bush. Each of the methods assumes its own characteristics of growing and care. You can grow chives from seeds on the windowsill, in the open field and in a greenhouse.

Reproduction of onion by seeds

Onion seeds retain their germination capacity for two years, later this property decreases. With long-term cultivation, reproduction occurs by self-seeding. The seed pods crack as they ripen, or you can pick the pods and collect the seeds yourself.

Seeds are sown in early April, July or late September. They are pre-soaked and dried. Chives seeds are small, seedlings appear weak, therefore they require special care and attention. It is best to carry out reproduction by seedlings or dividing the bush.

The best varieties of chives for growing by seeds: Chemal, Siberian, Bohemia, Khibinsky, Velta. Growing onions from seeds involves regular watering, loosening the soil, and weeding.

Growing seedlings

Chives can be planted by seedlings. Seeds should be soaked in warm water for a day before planting. They begin to plant at the beginning of March in prepared boxes with loose soil mixture. In prepared holes 1 cm deep, lay out one seed at a time and cover with earth. Then the boxes are covered with plastic wrap and put away in a warm place. On the 4th day, the first shoots should appear. The temperature in the room should be around 20 degrees.

When is it better to transplant seedlings outdoors? Two months later, when two real leaves on each bush unfold, they are transplanted to a permanent place. The distance between the rows is 35 cm, in a row the spacing should be 25 cm.

Dividing the bush

Gradually, as it develops, chives will cover the soil with overgrown bushes. The yield and quality of green mass decreases. In one place, the culture is grown for no more than 5 years. After that, they are transplanted, dividing the chives into several parts.

The selected perennial onion bush is carefully dug up, divided into 3-4 parts, so that each part has roots. In the prepared area, holes are made, watered with water and the separated parts of the plant are planted, covered with earth. The soil is compacted a little and watered again.

Greens cuts

For the whole year, up to 3-4 cuts of greens are carried out. Fresh leaves can be cut after they have grown to a height of 30–40 cm. The first cut is carried out in mid-May, and the last cut falls on the last days of September.

With a one-year cultivation of a culture, cutting is carried out throughout the season, and in the spring they dig out the bushes together with the roots, using bulbs for food. When grown properly, you can get a good harvest.

With long-term cultivation of crops, the bushes begin to be dug out after 3-4 years. Part of the plant is used for further propagation, and for the rest they are used in cooking.

Watch the video: How to Grow Chives u0026 Garlic Chives! 101 Seed to Kitchen, Planting, Problems, Harvest, u0026 Using! (December 2022).