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Phosphorus is one of those elements, without which plants cannot grow normally. Water-soluble phosphate fertilizers are essential for the normal development of all crops. Both an overabundance and a lack of a trace element in the soil leads to the fact that vegetables and fruits begin to grow poorly. With a sufficient amount of phosphorus, crops begin to bear fruit faster and give a rich harvest, less often they are exposed to diseases.
What are phosphorus fertilizers?
Phosphate fertilizer is a substance that is involved in accelerating the growth of crops, improves the quality and quantity of seeds, and also affects the formation of ovaries and fruits.
Deficiency of phosphorus in the soil can lead to reduced yields and wilting of bushes. Different crops require different amounts of the substance, but in any case, all plants need fertilizing with phosphorus-containing fertilizers.
Plants that need liquid phosphate fertilizers the most:
- Apple tree.
Other types of phosphorus-containing fertilizers can also be used for top dressing.
There are several types of dressings. They differ in composition and production method. Depending on the type of top dressing, the method of application to the soil is also different.
Some types of phosphorus supplements are organic. Do-it-yourself fertilization of this type is quite simple to do.
Top dressing with natural composition:
- Bone flour. As you know, bone meal is obtained by grinding the bones of livestock. Fertilizers related to this type are used for the active growth of any agricultural crops. Tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes react especially well to it. Bone meal is suitable for indoor plants. Organic phosphate fertilizers are the safest in contrast to chemical fertilizers.
- Compost. You can make a herbal-based fertilizer with a high phosphorus content with your own hands.
To prepare top dressing you will need:
- Feather grass.
- Rowan berries.
On the basis of these herbs, you can make your own compost, which will saturate the soil with phosphorus just as well.
Depending on the level of solubility, four types are distinguished:
- Difficult to dissolve.
- Water insoluble.
The latter variety is the least common among gardeners.
Soluble phosphate fertilizers include:
- Superphosphate. Popular top dressing among summer residents. You can buy it in stores in the form of granules or powder. In addition to phosphorus, superphosphate contains calcium, sulfur, magnesium and other chemicals. Suitable for soil application in open ground and greenhouse shelters. Most of the substance is best applied in the fall when digging up the site. The second part - in the spring before planting seedlings.
- Superphos. Fertilizers, which are highly concentrated, and are produced only in granules.
- Double superphosphate. It is produced in the form of granules, may contain a small amount of acid. Submitted mainly in the fall. Also, double superphosphate is used for root and foliar dressing during the season. It belongs to strong concentrates and should be diluted before use in the spring so as not to burn the roots.
Water insoluble fertilizers include:
- Ammophos. Gardeners who fertilize vegetables and grain crops, trees, shrubs with this top dressing will have a good harvest. Used in the fall when digging a site. It goes well with nitrogen.
- Diammophos. The second name is ammonium hydrogen phosphate. This chemical element is the main component. It is used to reduce the acidity of the soil, increases the immunity of plants to diseases and insects. Diammophos is combined with poultry droppings and manure. When mixing the product with organic fertilizers, it must be insisted during the day so as not to damage the plants.
- Azofoska. Mineral fertilizer, which belongs to the complex. It also contains potassium, nitrogen and a small amount of sulfur. It is produced in the form of large granules. Azofoska helps to increase the yield, prevents the development of diseases.
- Precipitate. Refers to lemon-soluble fertilizers. Light gray powdery substance. The precipitate dissolves in citric acid. Concentrated fertilizer. It is used mainly on soils with high acidity.
Sparingly soluble dressings come with the following names:
- Phosphate flour. The assimilation of this substance is slow. It is influenced by factors such as the properties of the plant, the degree of grinding of the flour and the acidity of the soil. Digestibility can be accelerated by mixing flour with acidic nitrogen-containing dressings or peat (manure can be used). Mixing with ash is not recommended.
- Vivianite. Vivianite is mined from iron ore. On sale you can find Vivianite only in powder form. Its properties resemble phosphate rock. Before applying to the soil, the agent must be oxidized in the fresh air.
Liquid phosphorus fertilizers have a complex composition. These fertilizers also contain potassium, nitrogen and other substances. Pure phosphorus is not available in liquid form. The most popular remedy is Reasil Forte Seed Start.
The advantage of liquid dressings is their convenience. They are produced in sealed containers. You can store it at temperatures up to - 17 degrees. They are introduced into the holes before planting seedlings and by foliar method.
Another effective plant growth agent is phosphoric acid. With the help of phosphoric acid, different varieties of plants can be fertilized. Particular attention should be paid to the concentration of the acid. If it is concentrated, then it must be diluted in a ratio of 1 tbsp. l. 10 liters of water. If divorced, then you need to know in what proportions. Also, before applying, you should find out the acidity of the soil. If the soil is acidic, the acid can only increase the acidity.
This will negatively affect most of the crops that grow on the site.
Signs of a lack of phosphorus in the soil
It is quite easy to notice the lack of phosphorus in the soil. The main thing is to monitor the appearance of the crops growing on the site.
Signs of a lack of feeding:
- The stems and leaves of the bushes over time acquire a dark shade, which turns into purple.
- The leaves become smaller, begin to wither and fall off.
- Dark spots begin to appear on the lower leaves.
- The plant becomes bushy.
- Bushes slow down growth and become short.
- The rhizome develops poorly.
- Deformation of the leaves occurs.
- Due to the underdeveloped root system, the stem falls out of the ground.
All of these negative consequences can be avoided by regularly applying top dressing to the soil. But, before applying fertilizers to the soil, it is important to understand why this happened.
Why is there a phosphorus deficiency in the soil?
Deficiency of phosphorus in the soil can occur for various reasons.
The most common reasons are:
- Incorrect application of top dressing to the soil.
- The crops that grew earlier on the site absorbed all the phosphorus, and its deficiency was not subsequently replenished.
- The seedlings were improperly grown.
- Transition of phosphorus into forms that are difficult to assimilate by plants.
- Excessive soil load. The soil does not have time to recover between harvesting and planting seedlings.
It is necessary to apply phosphorus-containing fertilizers in the fall after harvesting. During the winter, all elements will be able to transfer to the soil complex and the plants will not have a lack of phosphorus.
Features of application on the site
Among gardeners, water-soluble dressings are common due to their versatility. As the name suggests, they need water. Suitable for all types of soils.
Hardly soluble fertilizers are the least popular. This is due to the fact that they need acid. This fertilizer is only suitable for acidic soils. They are used mainly in autumn.
The composition of hardly soluble phosphorus dressings includes phosphate rock. It is because of its content that the fertilizer is difficult to dissolve in liquid. It can be completely dissolved only in sulfuric or nitric acid.