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Curling of leaves in cucumbers can be caused by a lack of nutrients in the soil, as well as by various viruses and bacteria. To help the plant and not lose the harvest, you need to know the cause of the problem, and there are a lot of them.
Why do cucumbers have leaves curled?
Sometimes you can notice that the leaves of the cucumbers in the garden wrinkle, turn yellow, dry and fall off. Before starting treatment, you need to understand the problem, consider diseased bushes, perhaps other signs will be found. If it is untimely and incorrectly to find the cause, you can completely lose the crop.
Common causes are:
lack of nutrients in the soil (nitrogen, sulfur, magnesium, calcium);
- improper feeding (insufficient or excessive introduction of certain components);
- violation of the irrigation regime;
- attack of insect pests;
- fungal, viral, or bacterial infections;
If you find a problem in time, you can stop its spread and reanimate diseased bushes.
If the leaves of cucumbers curl upward, then the reason is often a lack of nutrients, in particular potassium, calcium and zinc.
Leaves curl outward due to many diseases. Most often due to powdery mildew. Additionally, a whitish bloom can be found on the surface of the leaves.
Cucumber leaves can curl inward due to a lack of, for example, calcium, nitrogen, magnesium, sulfur. Deficiency of these nutrient components can result from improper preparation of the land plot before planting or insufficient fertilization during the development of a vegetable crop.
If there is not enough moisture in the air and in the soil, evaporation from the surface of cucumber leaves is accelerated. In order to retain moisture, the plant reduces the surface area of the leaves and they shrink. Often this state of leaves can be observed on hot summer days.
The leaf plate of cucumbers curls downward as a result of excess moisture and high humidity in the air.
Leaves can curl inward due to diseases and pest attacks. In diseased bushes, the color of the leaves changes, black or light dots, stripes appear. The plant turns yellow and dries. The reason may be the wrong planting scheme (too densely planted), non-observance of crop rotation, too low or high air temperature, improper care (for example, untimely weeding and loosening of the soil).
Sometimes growers can face a problem when the cucumber seedlings dry out.
The problem is often easily fixed if you notice it in the early stages:
- Improper watering, excess moisture, but most often lack of it.
- Insufficient lighting.
- Cold air, due to which the soil temperature drops below 17 degrees, and the plant does not absorb nutrients well.
- Micronutrient deficiencies, especially nitrogen and potassium.
- The reason for the drying and curling of the leaves of the seedlings may be too dense planting or a small container.
The same reasons can lead to a change in the appearance of cucumber leaves when grown outdoors.
Diseases and pests can lead to yellowing. Most often, cucumber beds suffer from fusarium, powdery mildew, whitefly and aphids. The edges turn yellow due to lack of nutrients in the soil. In some cases, cucumber leaves turn yellow and dry as a result of the natural aging process. As a rule, this applies to large leaves that have been growing on the stem for a long time.
A shriveled, yellowed leaf should alert vegetable growers.
You need to determine the reason in time in order to start the right struggle:
- The main reason why the green mass of cucumbers withers in the greenhouse is improper watering. Gradually, the leaf plate begins to turn yellow, dry and fall off. You need to water cucumbers 4 times a week, at first you can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate, Fitosporin, Trichodermin.
- Wrinkled leaves may indicate a lack of nitrogen and other trace elements in the soil. In this case, it is useful to add an infusion of chicken manure or urea.
- Cucumber leaves can shrink from direct sunlight. A covering structure should be installed that would protect from the effects of the scorching sun.
- If a vegetable crop is infected with infections or has been attacked by pests, then the leaves wrinkle, dry, turn yellow.
Each unfavorable factor can cause a decrease in the yield and taste of the fruit, therefore, it must be eliminated in a timely manner.
Problems with boarding and leaving
The reason why the leaves of cucumber seedlings curl, wither and dry may be non-compliance with the planting rules:
- You need to plant cucumbers only when the soil warms up to +12 degrees, and there is no threat of frost.
- They begin to plant in the greenhouse in mid-April, in open ground in early June.
- The seedlings to be transplanted should be 25 days old.
- It is better to tie cucumber lashes to a support so as not to shade all parts of the plant and to allow light and air to circulate freely.
In case of improper care, the lashes begin to grow, the leaves curl, dry and turn yellow, and the cucumbers are formed of an irregular shape with a bitter taste.
Warm and humid summers are most favorable for cucumbers. Due to the high air temperature, the soil is constantly dry, the plants begin to ache, the fruits lose their juiciness and taste, the leaves wither and dry. Prolonged precipitation, sharp fluctuations in ambient temperature, the return of frost leads to hypothermia of the seedlings. As a result, the plant may die altogether.
Cloudy days also cause the leaves to curl inward or outward, losing their rich green color.
A decrease in air temperature can lead to curling of leaves in cucumbers, since the vegetable belongs to a heat-loving vegetable crop. In the open field, this can be unfavorable weather conditions (prolonged rains, return of frosts), too early planting of seedlings in unheated soil.
Hypothermia of cucumber seedlings can occur due to a cold window sill, an incorrect hardening procedure.
Violation of the landing pattern
Often, seedlings that are planted too close to each other curl, turn yellow and dry the leaves. This happens as a result of insufficient supply of light, air, nutrients to all parts of the plant. The risk of developing fungal and viral diseases increases.
When growing cucumber seedlings, it is necessary to choose large containers and keep a distance during sowing. If the seeds are planted immediately in open ground, then the holes are made no more than 3 cm deep.The distance between the rows should be 80-90 cm.A gap of 20 cm is left between the bushes.
In the greenhouse
Almost everyone has a greenhouse installed on the land. It allows you not to adapt to the weather conditions, in addition, you can independently adjust the humidity and air temperature. But problems can also appear in the greenhouse.
There are several reasons why cucumber leaves curl:
- cold soil (the plant's immunity decreases, development slows down);
- low humidity and high room temperature;
- lack of trace elements in the soil (in the greenhouse, the soil is depleted faster, therefore it is recommended to renew the top layer of the earth every year and to apply fertilizers regularly).
It is very important to establish the correct temperature regime and watering when caring for greenhouse crops.
Twisting and other changes in the leaves in the greenhouse should be treated by frequent ventilation of the room, setting the temperature regime and fertilizing the soil with fertilizers. The air temperature in the greenhouse after germination should be +22 degrees. The moisture level in the greenhouse changes depending on the period of development of the cucumbers. During the period of active growth, the humidity should be 90%, during the flowering period a little lower - 80%.
Humidity levels in greenhouses and greenhouses are easy to maintain with constant watering. If there is enough moisture in the greenhouse soil, the plant will feel good.
On the windowsill
At home, on the windowsill, you can grow cucumbers and feast on them in any season. But some factors can impair the development of the plant and reduce the yield.
If the leaves of cucumbers on the windowsill curl and dry, then unfavorable factors can be:
- incorrect watering regime (when growing a crop in a room, rare watering is required);
- insufficient air humidity;
- deficiency of nutrients in the soil;
- improperly selected soil.
The situation can be corrected by restoring the irrigation mode. Watering cucumbers abundantly with warm water is enough once a week. It is imperative to ensure that there is no stagnant water.
It is useful to regularly spray the green part of the plants, do not forget about feeding.
The leaves of cucumber seedlings change their appearance due to insufficient light intake, drafts, poor soil, improperly selected container, too dense planting of seeds.
The cucumber loves a lot of water, so it requires constant watering. When the soil is moistened, the cucumbers get enough nutrients to form tasty fruits. When the soil is overdried, the development of culture stops.
At the same time, stagnation of water at the roots must be avoided, this interferes with the flow of air to them and the risk of rotting increases:
- Before the onset of the flowering period, it is recommended to water the cucumbers every 4-5 days.
- After the appearance of the ovaries, the number of waterings is increased to once every two days.
- In the active phase of fruiting, watered every other day. If the weather is hot, dry, then daily watering is shown.
With the onset of frequent rains, soil irrigation is completely stopped. Before flowering, 1 sq. m consume 4-5 liters of warm water. During the formation of ovaries and fruiting, water consumption per 1 sq. m increases to 10 liters.
It is important to set the mode of watering cucumbers. Dry and hot weather can cause the leaves to curl. In this case, you need to restore the water balance. First, you should carefully loosen the top layer of the soil, and then irrigate abundantly with warm water.
In the future, it is recommended to water every 4-5 days, the soil should get wet to a depth of 12 cm.
It is easier to increase the humidity in a greenhouse or room than outdoors. It is important that the necessary moisture is supplied not only to the roots, but also to the leaves. Water is sprayed with a spray bottle. If the leaves dry on the open ground due to dry air, then you can water over the leaves. The procedure can be carried out only early in the morning using warm, settled water.
Proper watering of cucumbers will allow the soil to receive a sufficient amount of moisture. As a result, the fruits will be smooth, juicy and sweet. The risk of disease is reduced and the number of crops increased.
An excess of moisture leads to the fact that the leaves of cucumbers sag and become lifeless. In this case, you need to stop watering before the soil dries up. Water for irrigation should be warm, settled. Excessive watering of the soil leads to salinization, waterlogging of the soil and the formation of a crust. A whitish crust appears on the surface of the earth, which prevents the flow of light, oxygen and nutrients. Immediately after planting cucumbers, the first watering is carried out in 3-4 days.
After each watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil. This will avoid crusting and ensure better moisture and micronutrient distribution.
Leaves curl up most often with a lack of nitrogen or potassium. With a lack of nitrogen, the edges of the leaves curl inward, and with a deficiency of potassium, outward, while the edges of the leaves begin to turn yellow. You can fill the lack of nutrients with ammonium nitrate, potassium salt, wood ash, potassium sulfate.
But not only nitrogen and potassium can lead to a change in the appearance of cucumber bushes. For example, with a lack of magnesium, the leaves look sluggish, pale yellow blotches appear. Leaves become pale with a lack of copper. With a lack of calcium, white stripes can be found on the leaves, which expand over time.
When burned with ammonia, a sheet plate is twisted inward. This happens as a result of the introduction of fresh manure or an excess amount of ammonium nitrate into the soil. In this case, it is recommended to remove the topsoil along with fertilizers. Then you need to add fresh earth and water.
The root system of cucumbers is poorly developed and does not tolerate picking well, therefore, many experienced vegetable growers exclude the procedure. If it is supposed to grow a culture through seedlings, then the seeds are immediately planted in separate containers, it is best to choose peat cups.
If the seeds were planted in a common container and, after being dived into the open ground, the leaves began to curl and turn yellow, then the roots were damaged. This is the main reason why leaves on cucumbers change their appearance after picking.
To revive the damaged plant, you need to treat the beds with special preparations: "Epin", "Zircon", "Kornevin".
Diseases and pests
Diseases of cucumbers often appear as a result of non-compliance with crop rotation, temperature changes, increased humidity, lack of timely feeding, poor lighting, not prepared for planting a site, watering with cold water. In cucumbers, leaf curling can be observed in diseases such as powdery mildew, peronosporosis, cladosporia, fusarium wilting, gray or white rot, field mosaic.
There are many ways than to treat cucumber leaf curl for illness. In the early stages, when the fruits have not yet formed, you can use chemicals. If the problem appeared at the stage of fruit formation, then it is better to choose biological products and compositions of folk recipes.
Among the well-known means of combating diseases: "Fitosporin", "Hom", Bordeaux liquid, "Oxyhom".
Leaf deformation can be caused by pest colonization. The most common attacks are spider mites and aphids. Insects interfere with the supply of nutrients and water, and also carry pathogens. If pests are found, the beds should be sprayed with Fitoverm, Aktofit, Barguzin, Aktara.
Powdery mildew damage
When infected with powdery mildew, a whitish-gray bloom is observed on the leaves. Gradually, the powdery bloom spreads to all parts of the plant, the leaves can curl, turn yellow and dry.
The causative agent of the fungal disease very quickly spreads to healthy bushes in cold, wet weather. Fungal spores die at air temperatures above +25 degrees. Improper watering and an excess of nitrogen in the soil can provoke the disease.
In order to prevent disease, it is necessary to properly water the beds and only with warm, settled water, remove weeds in time and loosen the aisles. After harvesting from the site, you need to remove the remnants of the tops.
Root rot affects the culture at any stage of its development.Initially, the roots are affected, they turn brownish-yellow and dry out over time. Then the stem becomes thinner, and the whole cucumber bush dies.
Irrigation with cold water, improper planting of cucumbers, deep seeding, a sharp change from heat to cold and vice versa can provoke the disease.
Sick plants need to be urgently pulled out by the roots and burned. The remaining plants can be treated with wood ash, copper sulfate.
Defeat by the virus
During the defeat of viral diseases, the color of the leaves changes first. They turn pale, curl, wrinkle and turn yellow, spots appear. Viruses are carried by pests or transmitted through seeds. Therefore, before planting, the seeds must be treated with special solutions and warmed up at a temperature of +70 degrees.
Cucumber mosaic often affects young shoots after transplantation. Aphids are considered to carry the virus. Numerous spots appear on the leaves, in addition, they can curl.
When and how to feed cucumbers
An important point in the cultivation of a cucumber crop is the introduction of fertilizers and growth stimulants. It is important to know when, in what quantity and which element is best to add. At different periods of development, a culture needs certain microelements to a greater or lesser extent.
The first feeding is carried out after the unfolding of the third true leaf. For the growth of green mass, nitrogen is needed. At this time, choose urea, nitrophoska or infusion of mullein with potassium sulfate.
After two weeks, re-feeding is carried out. You can use the infusion of chicken droppings or rotted herbal infusion.
The next top dressing is during the flowering period. The plant needs potassium the most. Foliar or root top dressing with compositions with wood ash is suitable. Well saturates the soil with mullein infusion with superphosphate and potassium sulfate. Nitrogen, magnesium and potassium are needed during the period of active fruiting. It is useful to add potassium nitrate by the foliar method.
To prevent curling of cucumber leaves, you need to follow the preventive rules of agricultural technology:
- do not forget about the importance of regular and correct watering, establishing the level of humidity and temperature in the greenhouse, frequent ventilation of the room;
- in order to prevent the appearance of pests and diseases, the soil must be disinfected before planting, the seeds are also processed, crop rotation must be observed;
- timely application of fertilizers will make up for the lack of trace elements and increase the plant's immunity.
If all the rules are followed, problems rarely arise, and it is possible to collect a large harvest of tasty fruits.