We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Mustard belongs to the cruciferous family. It is considered one of the most popular and versatile siderates. This culture does not need specific care. It develops well and is of great benefit to the soil. The plant saturates the soil with nutrients and makes it looser. When using mustard as a siderat, it is important to know when to sow and when to bury the crop. In this case, it is worth considering a number of features.
Advantages and disadvantages of mustard as a siderat
To improve the quality characteristics of the soil, different types of mustard are used - black, white or Sarepta. The white variety is considered especially effective. It increases the parameters of germination and productivity of cultivated plants, protects the soil from drying out, helps to get rid of weeds and pests.
The plant's effectiveness is due to its unique chemical composition. The culture releases the following substances:
- Disinfecting components - glycosides. They help to avoid active growth of weeds and infection of the crop with scab or rot.
- Proteins and Minerals. These substances help to restore even the most depleted soil and allow it to be adapted for planting seedlings.
- Acids. These substances protect the soil and tender young plants from the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation.
The main advantages of this green manure include the following:
- improving the structure of the soil - it becomes loose and perfectly absorbs moisture;
- increasing soil resistance to blowing, leaching and displacement;
- lack of weeds on the site;
- reducing the risk of developing diseases and pest attacks;
- improving pollination of cultivated plants.
At the same time, mustard also has some disadvantages:
- the risk of developing pathologies that are characteristic of representatives of the cruciferous family - these include powdery mildew, keel, rust;
- lignification of stems after flowering;
- attraction of birds - they peck at mustard seeds and can provoke damage to berries and fruits.
For which soils is mustard suitable as a green manure
The plant can be used as a fertilizer for black soil, peat or sandy soil. Mustard loves neutral soil types. It can also grow at low acidity. At the same time, it is not recommended to plant the plant in loamy, sour or salty soil.
What and when can be planted after
A large number of crops can be planted after mustard. These include:
In this case, after the plant, it is forbidden to plant the following:
- all types of cabbage;
Terms and rules for planting culture
Mustard can be planted in different seasons. Depending on the timing of planting, the care of the crop is different.
The plant can be planted in March. In warm areas, this is allowed even at the end of February. It takes 30-40 days to grow the deciduous mass.
For planting work, it is recommended to do the following:
- Clear the beds from old plant debris.
- If necessary, process the beds with a rake or a flat cutter. In the spring, the soil is quite wet, so planting seeds is not difficult.
- The easiest way is to scatter mustard seeds around the area. However, it is not necessary to close them up. At the very first precipitation, they themselves will go deep into the ground.
The seeding rate per one hundred square meters may differ:
- when planting in the beds, 400-500 grams of mustard is required;
- when placed between rows, 120-150 grams will be enough.
When the air temperature rises to +10 degrees, the first shoots will appear already in 3-4 days. In this case, the ground will be covered with a continuous cover after about 1 month.
In summer, it is permissible to plant mustard in the event that it is required to remove the plot from the crop rotation, restore and improve it. It is allowed to plant a plant 2 times during the season:
- For the first time, planting work should be carried out at the end of May. After 1.5 months, the plants can be embedded in the ground.
- After another 2 weeks, mustard can be planted on the same bed again. In this case, it is important to comply with the rates of seed consumption.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
This soil restoration option is suitable if it is not too depleted. Summer planting of white mustard will not work to normalize the structure of very poor soil. Siderat alone will not help quickly restore depleted soil.
The formation of the humus layer takes many years. To speed it up, you should use more efficient methods. To do this, you can make compost or humus. It is also permissible to use other organic fertilizers with a powerful effect.
To increase the fertility of the soil, it is recommended to plant mustard in the fall immediately after harvest. This is especially true in cooler areas. Thanks to this, the culture will have time to grow up before the arrival of severe cold weather. In the south, green manure should be planted until mid-November.
To carry out planting work, it is recommended to do the following:
- After harvesting, clear the beds from plant residues and weeds.
- Feed the soil with humus. For 1 square meter, you should use no more than 2 buckets of top dressing. The earth needs to be dug up and loosened with a rake.
- Scatter the seeds densely over the entire area of the site in order to achieve the formation of a continuous cover of plants.
- In the absence of precipitation and high dryness of the soil, sprinkle a thin layer of earth on the seeds - a maximum of 1 centimeter. After that, the soil needs to be moistened so that the seeds do not scatter.
Then events can develop in different ways:
- With the timely planting of mustard, it has time to grow well. In this case, the plant can be mowed and left in the beds as a mulch layer.
- If the grass has grown a little, and the cold has already come, the mustard should be left in the garden.
With the onset of spring, it is recommended to dig up the soil or process it with a cultivator. Overripe mustard can be used as a complete fertilizer.
This undemanding plant grows well in loose soil. It grows well in the shade and in sunny beds. In good conditions, sprouts appear 3-5 days after planting. After the emergence of seedlings, the development of mustard is suspended.
After about a month, a dense carpet of green manure appears on the ground. After another 1 week, the mustard begins to bloom actively. In dry weather, the plant needs abundant watering. Before the onset of the flowering process, mustard must be mowed, and the soil must be dug up.
When to cut the grass?
In order for the plant to develop in the garden, it is necessary to maintain the optimal parameters of the moisture content of the site. It is necessary to mow the greens before flowering. This is done 1 month after planting. It is important to do this in a timely manner, since with the beginning of flowering, the stems become coarser, and the foliage acquires a rigid structure. At this time, mustard absorbs a large amount of nutrients from the soil and loses the properties of green manure.
When growing mustard in heavy soil, the mowed greens must be dug up directly from the ground. It is recommended to use a shovel for this. In looser soil, it is enough to close the plant into the ground with an ordinary hoe. In dry weather, the fed beds need to be watered systematically. This will help speed up the decomposition of the greens.
The most common mistakes people make when growing green manure include:
- Lack of watering after planting. It is forbidden to allow the soil under this plant to dry out. Therefore, it is important to moderately, but regularly, water the plantings.
- Neglecting the seeding process after planting. As a consequence, they are pecked by birds or spread by the wind.
- Planting mustard after cabbage or radish. These cultures are considered to be related. Therefore, it is forbidden to plant them nearby or alternate.
- Cutting too late. You need to harvest siderates before the grains ripen. Otherwise, green manure will become a weed and fill the entire garden.
- Landing too frequent or very rare. To achieve a pronounced result, you need to spend 400 grams of mustard per 1 hundred square meters. It is important to distribute the grains correctly so that there are no voids.
Mustard is considered an effective herb and is often used as a green manure. In order for the culture to give the desired result, it is required to strictly adhere to the terms and rules of disembarkation.