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The cherry growing in the summer cottage surprises not only with its luxurious spring flowering, but also with the amount of useful elements contained in it. The fruits, seeds and bark of cherries are used in folk medicine, cosmetology, especially varieties bred 20-30 years ago are used. Amorel is a cherry variety that has long been known to many gardeners, and some still prefer it because of its taste and early harvest.
History of the origin of the variety
The variety was bred by folk Russian gardeners more than 60 years ago, received a registration number in 1947 in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of Fruit Crops. Has several consonant names Amorel, early Amorel.
Features of the variety
Amorel belongs to the early self-fruitless varieties of cherries. The tree grows from 2 m to 3.5 m in height. The crown is spreading, round, with straight branches. Skeletal branches are straight, depart from the trunk at an angle, the bark is dark gray, rough, the trunk is brown-gray. The leaves are bright green above, below the plate is green-gray with pronounced veins. The flowers are white, collected in inflorescences of 2-4, bloom in the 1-2 nd decade of May.
Fruits are medium in size, weighing from 3 to 3.5 g, rounded-flattened, with a wide rounded funnel on long petioles.
The fruits have a pale red shade of dense, thin skin, the flesh is creamy pink, sweet and sour. The stone is small, round, creamy yellow, slightly separated from the pulp.
A feature of the described variety is that on Amoreli, the pink crop is evenly distributed throughout the tree. Depending on the region of cultivation, it begins to ripen in late June to mid-July.
- Frost resistance of the root system down to -25 ° C, the bark can be damaged after sudden changes of 2-3 degrees.
- The variety does not like dry weather, requires moderate watering.
- Average yield: from 4.5 kg to 15 kg per tree.
- Resistance to diseases and pests is average.
Minus cherries - short shelf life, not transportable, fruit juice has a pale red color.
The tree begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year after planting a seedling or grafting.
Choosing a landing site
The landing site should be sunny, without drafts, if planted near buildings, then the distance should be at least 2 m. The side of the site is southern, southeastern. The soil needs neutral, it grows well in loams, chernozem, sod-podzolic soil. Groundwater should be deep, the variety does not like flooding. The variety grows well in the Volga region, where it got its distribution.
Depending on the seedling of the parent variety or the rootstock grown in the northern regions, it can be cultivated in the harsher climate of southern Siberia.
The seedling is planted in the spring in April, the graft of Amorel cherries is grafted, when sap flow begins, in early April. The main condition for planting or grafting is considered to be a well-established warm weather, warmed up soil up to 10 ° C. In the south of the country and in the center - from the beginning of April, in the North - from May.
The seedling must be of good quality without mechanical damage and diseases, pests, flexible branches and roots. The stem is from 50-60 cm in diameter, the trunk is at least 2.5 cm. The seedling must be chosen with a closed root system and always moist soil, otherwise the roots may be dry, which will affect the growth of the plant and its yield.The size of the hole should be 2-3 times larger than the roots; for a 2-3-year-old seedling, the depth should be at least 60 cm, width 50-70 cm.
At the bottom, it is necessary to lay out a large layer of drainage so that the water does not linger for a long time, since the variety does not like flooded soil and acidic soil.
The soil is needed rich with a lot of nutrients, so if the soil is poor, then organic fertilizers can be put in the pit. Before planting, the roots must be treated with a disinfectant solution, and then soaked for 2-3 hours in a growth stimulator. Damaged, dry branches and roots are cut with a sharp pruner at an angle.
Watering for the Amorel variety is very important, especially in hot, dry weather. On a 4-5-year-old tree, 1-2 buckets of water are poured around the trunk every 10-15 days, starting from May to mid-June, after which watering is reduced so that the berries do not begin to disappear from an excess of moisture.
Fertilizers are applied during the beginning of sap flow with dolomite flour, urea, rotted manure. The second time you can feed during the flowering period with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, saltpeter. In autumn, nitroammophoska and ammophoska are introduced. All fertilizers must be applied to the trunk circle.
Diseases and pests
Amorel is often attacked by birds during the ripening period, as well as by aphids and cherry flies, the slimy sawfly. From the birds to the branches, they tie repelling spinners or pull the net over the crown. For other pests use "Fitoverm", tar soap.
Cherry rarely suffers from coccomycosis, it can often be affected by wilt, anthracnose, and cercospora. Therefore, in spring and autumn, you need to treat the plant with a fungicide, cut off diseased branches, and clear the garden from weeds. Cherries of the Amorel pink variety are more common for cultivation by amateur gardeners; they have a beautiful habit of forming the crown of a tree.