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Symptoms and signs of cytosporosis on an apple tree, methods of treatment and prevention

Symptoms and signs of cytosporosis on an apple tree, methods of treatment and prevention



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Treatment of cytosporosis of an apple tree requires compliance with a number of features. To cope with this violation, you can use mechanical or chemical means. In addition to standard procedures, it is permissible to use folk recipes. In this case, treatment gives an effect only in the initial stages of the development of pathology. To avoid the development of the disease, preventive measures should be taken.

What is this disease

Cytosporosis is an infectious fungal disease that often affects fruit trees. This is a very dangerous disease that causes the bark of the tree to dry out. Under the influence of fungal toxins, which are released in the process of vital activity, the bark dries and acquires a spongy consistency. After some time, it acquires a dark shade and dies off.

The causative agent of cytosporosis

Cytosporosis is provoked by fungal microorganisms - Cytospora copitata Sacc et Schnalz and Cytospora carphosperma Fr. Pathology affects trees of any age. Burns and cracks act as a hotbed for infection. The pathogens are spread by wind or insects. They thrive in high humidity conditions.

Signs of tree infection

The pathology becomes noticeable during the flowering period or later - at the beginning of summer. First of all, the state of the cortex changes. Characteristic bumps form on it, in which spores develop. But this sign is almost invisible. Cytosporosis is very dangerous for the apple tree. It can lead to the death of the tree. With the development of the disease, the flowers dry and rust. In this case, the bark acquires a red-brown or orange hue. Sometimes it turns green and bumps.

The spots are growing rapidly. As a result, they encircle the branch. The bark almost does not leak juices and often dies off. The foliage and flowers around the affected area dry out. The bark takes on a dark shade. Ulcers often form on it. In difficult situations, wood suffers. Cracks and gum release are observed in the affected areas.

What can be confused with

Cytosporosis resembles the symptoms of black cancer. But with the second disease, the fungus forms obvious concentric circles, while with cytosporosis, chaotic bumps appear on the bark. In addition, in cytosporosis, the cortex acquires a spongy structure. At the same time, it does not exfoliate, as with black cancer.

Pathology is difficult to eliminate, therefore it is much easier to engage in prevention, and not to treat an infected garden.

What is the danger for the apple tree

Cytosporosis is one of the most serious diseases. Sap flow is carried out exclusively in the bark. When it is defeated, a fragment of a tree does not receive useful elements, and therefore dries up.

Under the influence of toxins of fungal microorganisms, which are released in the process of vital activity, the bark dries up and acquires a spongy structure. It does not pass juices, and after a short period of time it darkens and dies off with a branch.

Effective control measures

In difficult situations, pathology is difficult to treat. Therefore, it is best to deal with the prevention of disease.

Processing facilities

There are many effective chemicals that can help cope with cytosporosis. Mechanical methods of struggle are also highly effective.

Mechanical treatment

To stop the development of the disease, it is necessary to remove all affected fragments. In this case, it is important to get rid of the affected tissue. The remaining procedures are of an auxiliary nature. Affected thin branches must be ruthlessly removed. It is recommended to cut them off and treat the damaged fragments with copper sulfate. Then apply var. It is also permissible to use drying oil.

Skeletal fragments need to be examined in detail. If part of the bark is damaged, you can try to save the branches. If an interception phenomenon is present, the shoot is removed completely. If wood is damaged, any branch must be cut off. If the trunk is damaged, the apple tree will most likely die.

Chemicals

When symptoms of cytosporosis are detected, it is recommended to treat trees with modern fungicides. Different solutions are used depending on the stage of the growing season. It is best to start eliminating cytosporosis in early spring. For the first time, sprinkle the apple tree until leaves form. It is recommended to use copper sulfate at this stage. Its concentration should be 3%. The trunk circle must be treated with a solution of ammonium nitrate with a concentration of 10%. It is also permissible to use a 7% urea solution.

At the stage of kidney swelling, it is permissible to use Homa's solution. It is recommended to take 40 grams of the drug for 10 liters of water. It is also permissible to use 1% colloidal sulfur.

The next processing is carried out before flowering trees. At this stage, a solution of copper sulfate with a concentration of 5% is used. It is also permissible to use a composition based on 10 liters of water and 50 grams of colloidal sulfur. The third time it is worth processing the tree immediately after flowering. In this case, it is worth using Homa's solution.

Folk recipes

In addition to chemicals, effective folk recipes can be used:

  1. Clay and mullein based product. These substances must be taken in equal parts. To use the product, the affected area must be well cleaned and sprinkled with copper sulfate. Then apply the composition and wrap with a rag.
  2. Composition based on vitriol, rosin and kerosene. The remedy helps at the initial stage of a fungal infection. To do this, you need to mix rosin, vitriol and kerosene in a ratio of 3: 1: 1. In this case, it is not required to clean the affected area. It must be lubricated with the composition using a hard brush.

Features of antibiotic treatment

The disease can be treated with antibacterial drugs - Streptomycin and Tetracycline. For this, it is recommended to treat damaged areas with solutions with a concentration of 2-4%. It is also permissible to spray the crown and make stem injections.

When and how to carry out the procedure

At the beginning of spring, it is necessary to prune the branches. This should be done before the first leaves bloom. The cut area should be lubricated with copper sulfate at a concentration of 3%. To avoid getting bacteria and spores of fungal microorganisms on the damaged area, it is recommended to cover it with garden varnish. All tree pruning activities are recommended to be carried out in warm and dry weather.

Prophylaxis

To avoid the development of cytosporosis, it is recommended to follow these rules:

  1. Perform anti-aging pruning at intervals of 3-4 years. Systematically remove affected branches. Moreover, it is forbidden to leave hemp from cut trees. In conditions of high humidity, fungal spores actively reproduce on them.
  2. Burn fallen fruits, leaves, flowers. Smoothen areas of breakage and process with vitriol. Then cover with a layer of clay and mullein or use putty. This helps to increase the tree's resistance to frost and strengthen the immune system.
  3. Disinfect tools with kerosene. Formalin is also acceptable.
  4. Whitewash the trunks and plexuses of the branches with a solution of lime. This helps to avoid sunburn.
  5. Loosen the soil under the tree systematically. This saturates the roots with moisture and oxygen, and helps control pests.
  6. Avoid drying out the soil.
  7. Fertilize poor soil systematically. In this case, nitrogen agents are recommended to be applied in a minimum amount. Better to use potassium and phosphorus.

Cytosporosis is a dangerous pathology that often affects apple trees. To avoid the active reproduction of fungi, it is worth following the rules of prevention.


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